In vitro assays with natural promoters

Antioxidant activity of eleven essential oils by two different in vitro assays

Renato Pérez-Rosés¹, Ester Risco¹, Roser Vila¹, Pedro Peñalver² and Salvador Cañigueral¹

1 Unitat de Farmacologia i Farmacognòsia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona. Av. Diagonal, 643. E-08028 Barcelona (Spain).
2 Lidervet S.L., Tarragona, Spain


Introduction

Essential oils may have antioxidant properties and their consumption can influence immune cell functions. Also, their use in food industry may serve to replace synthetic antioxidant food additives. In order to contribute to a better knowledge of their antioxidant mechanisms, eleven essential oils, eugenol and carvacrol were investigated using two different in vitro models: the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human leukocytes and the scavenging of free radicals.

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Antioxidant and complement modulating activities of five essential oils

Renato Pérez-Rosés¹, Ester Risco¹, Roser Vila¹, Pedro Peñalver² and Salvador Cañigueral¹

1 Unitat de Farmacologia i Farmacognòsia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona. Av. Diagonal, 643. E-08028 Barcelona (Spain).
2 Lidervet S.L., Tarragona, Spain


Introduction

Antioxidant consumption has shown to lessen the decline in immune functions caused by aging, and it appears to be associated with enhancement of both macrophage and lymphocyte functions. The human complement system is also an important component of innate immunity. Complement derived products mediate functions contributing to pathogen elimination. However, inappropriate activation of the system contributes to the pathogenesis of immunological and inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate five essential oils for their activity on the complement system and their antioxidant properties by in vitro assays. All five essential oils were obtained from commercial sources.

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Antimicrobial activity of five essential oils against origin strains of the Enterobacteriaceae family

2005 APMIS 113:1-6
Pedro Peñalver, Belén Huerta, Carmen Borge, Rafael Astorga, Rafael Romero and Anselmo Perea
Animal Health Department, University of Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain

Summary

An in vitro assay measuring the antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Coridothymus capitatus (Spanish origanum), Satureja montana, Thymus mastichina (Spanish Origanum majorana), Thymus zygis (Spanish variety of Thymus vulgaris) and Origanum vulgare has been carried out against poultry origin strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella essen, and pig origin strains of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), Salmonella choleraesuis and Salmonella typhimurium. Using the broth microdilution method, all the essential oils showed an MIC ≥ 2% (v/v) for the two strains of E. coli. The essential oil that showed the highest antimicrobial activity against the four strains of Salmonella was Origanum vulgare (MIC ≤ 1% v/v), followed by Thymus zygis (MIC ≤ 2% v/v). Thymus mastichina inhibited all the microorganisms at the highest concentration, 4% (v/v), while the rest of the essential oils showed highly variable results. By chemotyping, higher inhibitory capacity was observed in the oils with a higher percentage of phenolic components (carvacrol and thymol) in comparison with oils containing the monoterpenic alcohol linalool. The results of this work confirm the antimicrobial activity of some essential oils, as well as their potential application in the treatment and prevention of poultry and pig diseases caused by salmonella.

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Inhibitory activity of nine essential oils on nitric oxide production by human leukocytes

Renato Pérez-Rosés¹, Ester Risco¹, Roser Vila¹, Pedro Peñalver² and Salvador Cañigueral¹

1 Unitat de Farmacologia i Farmacognòsia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona. Av. Diagonal, 643. E-08028 Barcelona (Spain).
2 Lidervet S.L., Tarragona, Spain


Introduction

Nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in the production of reactive nitrogen species (RNS), which have cytotoxic properties against pathogenic microbes and, at the same time, can damage host tissues. Some essential oils have antioxidant properties and their consumption can influence immune cell functions. In order to widen our knowledge of the antioxidant properties of essential oils we studied their effect on NO production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human blood leukocytes.

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Influencia de seis aceites esenciales sobre la producción de óxido nítrico en leucocitos humanos

Renato Pérez-Rosés¹, Ester Risco¹, Roser Vila¹, Pedro Peñalver² and Salvador Cañigueral¹

1 Unitat de Farmacologia i Farmacognòsia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona. Av. Diagonal, 643. E-08028 Barcelona (Spain).
2 Lidervet S.L., Tarragona, Spain


Introducción

El óxido nítrico (NO) es un radical libre citotóxico utilizado por el sistema inmune en la defensa frente a microorganismos invasores. Sin embargo, en exceso, puede causar daño en los tejidos del huésped. Algunos aceites esenciales han demostrado poseer actividad antioxidante y están relacionados con la mejora de la respuesta inmune. Para profundizar en las propiedades antioxidantes de los aceites esenciales hemos estudiado su efecto sobre la producción de NO inducida por lipopolisacáridos (LPS), en leucocitos humanos.

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Efecto de aceites esenciales sobre la fagocitosis en neutrófilos humanos

Renato Pérez-Rosés¹, Ester Risco¹, Roser Vila¹, Pedro Peñalver² and Salvador Cañigueral¹

1 Unitat de Farmacologia i Farmacognòsia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona. Av. Diagonal, 643. E-08028 Barcelona (Spain).
2 Lidervet S.L., Tarragona, Spain

Introducción

La fagocitosis es el principal mecanismo empleado para eliminar patógenos y desechos celulares en el sistema inmune. Los ensayos que analizan el efecto de los aceites esenciales sobre la fagocitosis son escasos y poco concluyentes. En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado el efecto de 15 aceites esenciales y 4 compuestos puros sobre la fagocitosis en neutrófilos humanos.

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Effect of essential oils on the activity of human neutrophil myeloperoxidase in vitro

Renato Pérez-Rosés¹, Ester Risco¹, Roser Vila¹, Pedro Peñalver² and Salvador Cañigueral¹

1 Unitat de Farmacologia i Farmacognòsia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona. Av. Diagonal, 643. E-08028 Barcelona (Spain).
2 Lidervet S.L., Tarragona, Spain


Introduction

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) (EC.1.11.1.7), together with its substrate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and a halide, has proved to be a powerful antimicrobial system, and as such, MPO is a key component of innate immune defense and the oxygen-dependent microbicidal activity of phagocytes. However, more recent evidence has extended this view by demonstrating that MPO is also intimately involved in cellular homeostasis and is an important factor in the initiation and progression of various inflammatory diseases. Hence, the present work was designed to examine the effect of fifteen essential oils (EO) and four pure volatile substances on MPO activity and MPO cellular release as an important part of their anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties.

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